By Gregory White
Examines how emerging financial integration with Europe affects Tunisia and Morocco.
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Extra info for A Comparative Political Economy of Tunisia and Morocco: On the Outside of Europe Looking in
65 Indeed, a weak state can manage reform if it has internal elite consensus and if its actions are in concert with key societal actors. Consolidating and sustaining economic reform requires support from international actors. 66 Most signiﬁcantly for a middle-income country, support for the development strategy from the international community is essential to the strategy’s ongoing maintenance. 67 Institutional Adaptations Third, institutional innovations and adaptations associated with reform in development strategy reﬂect the nature of the strategy pursued.
In the early 1980s, world phosphate prices dropped drastically. 17 Supported by the World Bank and by the IMF, the reforms were unstable in their early years. By late 1986, however, the IMF was squarely behind Rabat’s efforts to pursue economic reform. Washington also strongly supported Rabat after Hassan’s decision in August 1986 to abrogate a 1984 union with Libya. In July 1987, Hassan formally applied to the European Community for membership. Although the European Commission promptly rejected the application, A Political Economy of Tunisia and Morocco 33 Hassan’s gesture demonstrated Morocco’s realization of the need for an inﬁtah, however grudging, toward Europe.
As discussed in subsequent chapters, however, Tunisia has supplanted Morocco as far more repressive in the 1990s. Again, the sheer diversity of interests within Morocco is one element. More salient, however, is the fundamental challenge of reconciling an activist monarch with a constitu- 38 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK tion of speciﬁed powers. Monarchies in other contexts have long eschewed participation in day-to-day politics. In the common era, European monarchs such as Elizabeth of England, Juan Carlos of Spain, or Beatrice of Holland rarely intrude in national politics.
A Comparative Political Economy of Tunisia and Morocco: On the Outside of Europe Looking in by Gregory White